Evolutionary Tree

All life on earth evolved from a single universal ancestor, represented here as the base of a tree. This animation shows how different living things developed and diverged from this original organism. The three major divisions of life on earth consist of the bacteria, the archaea, eukaryotes, which together can be systematically organized into a structure known as an evolutionary tree. Yellow dashed lines indicate points at which members of certain bacterial species evolved into the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are represented here as the blue branch on the tree, eukaryotes are shown in brown, and archaea in purple. Stemming from the eukaryotes are the plants, shown in green, the fungi, shown in beige, the animals, in red, and the protists, represented by the remainder of the brown eukaryotic branch. This variation among different organisms arises due to the mutations in DNA which causes the genetic blueprint of living things to become gradually altered. Over time, these changes result in the appearance of a wide array of distinct organisms.

Question 1: What are the three major divisions of life?
  1. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes
  2. Protists, Plants, Animals
  3. Organisms, Viruses, Genes
  4. Fungi, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts

Answer 1

Answer - (a) Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes

Question 2: Which eukaryotic cellular compartments evolved from bacteria?
  1. Chloroplasts
  2. Mitochondira
  3. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
  4. None of the above

Answer 2

Answer - (c) Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

Question 3: What are the variations in DNA, which cause the genetic blueprint of all living things to become gradually altered, called?
  1. RNA
  2. Proteins
  3. Mutations
  4. Strands

Answer 3

Answer - (c) Mutations