Central Dogma

The Central Dogma of molecular biology holds that information encoded by the DNA of living cells is transcribed into ribonucleic acid, or RNA, that is then translated into protein. To begin the process of protein synthesis, the DNA molecule shown is first separated at the location where transcription will take place. Next, an enzyme called RNA polymerase synthesizes a chain of ribonucleotides, shown in blue, that are complementary to the bases of the opened DNA strand. The single-stranded RNA molecule is then released from the DNA template and translated into protein. Each set of three bases on the RNA strand encodes an amino acid, or protein building block, shown here as the colored spheres. As the translation proceeds, a long chain of amino acids is assembled from the information encoded in the RNA sequence, like beads on a string. The final product of this process is a completed protein composed of many linked amino acid building blocks.

Question 1: The Central Dogma declares that the process of protein synthesis starts with information being encoded by ___________ in living organisms, and is _____________ into _________ that is _____________ into protein.
  1. DNA, translated, RNA, transcribed
  2. RNA, translated, DNA, transcribed
  3. DNA, transcribed, RNA, translated
  4. RNA, transcribed, DNA, translated

Answer 1 Answer - (c) DNA, transcribed, RNA, translated

Question 2: What are the building blocks of proteins?
  1. DNA
  2. RNA
  3. Phage
  4. Amino Acids

Answer 2 Answer - (d) Amino acids