Transcription and RNA Processing

Transcription is the process by which the information encoded by DNA is converted into ribonucleic acid, or RNA. This process will be illustrated for the DNA molecule shown here. First, the DNA double helix is opened by an enzyme called RNA polymerase, not depicted here, at a section known as the transcriptional start point, allowing one of the strands to serve as a template for RNA synthesis. As the helix unwinds, RNA polymerase assembles a chain of ribonucleotides, shown in blue, that is complementary to the DNA template. Synthesis continues until the RNA polymerase encounters a “stop” signal along the DNA sequence that causes it to cease transcription, disassociate from the helix, and release the single-stranded RNA molecule. The RNA is now referred to as messenger RNA, or mRNA, and must be processed into a mature molecule.

Question 1: Transcription is the process of transferring information from DNA to which material?
  1. DNA
  2. RNA
  3. rRNA
  4. amino acids

Answer 1 Answer – (b) RNA

Question 2: RNA polymerase assembles a chain of _______________ that are complementary to the DNA template.
  1. deoxyribonucleosides
  2. deoxyribonucleotides
  3. ribonucleosides
  4. ribonucleotides

Answer 2 Answer – (d) ribonucleotides

Question 3: What is the product of transcription?
  1. Transcriptomes
  2. Translation
  3. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  4. Transfer RNA

Answer 3 Answer – (c) Messenger RNA (mRNA).